In 2018, the G5 Sahel countries asked the G5 Sahel Executive Secretariat (SEG5) to draw up an Emergency Development Programme (EDP) to stabilise the areas facing both complex security challenges and severe economic, social and climatic vulnerability. This programme, consisting of 22 ‘quick-impact’ projects, targets the fragile border regions of the three Joint Force project areas forming the epicentre of the Sahelian crisis and is broken down into three main ‘pillars’:
- To help improve the living conditions of the local populations through better access to water and sanitation.
- To improve the livelihoods of agricultural and pastoral populations by strengthening their structural and long-term resilience to food and nutrition insecurity.
- To support local communities and institutions in their efforts to prevent conflict and strengthen social cohesion by reinforcing the local socio-economic fabric.
In December 2018, at the G5 Sahel Partners and Donors Coordination Conference for the financing of the Priority Investment Programme (PIP), the Sahel Alliance pledged around EUR 1,835 billion to the PIP, including EUR 266 million for the EDP. The EDP comprises 22 projects, 17 of which are in progress, one is about to start and four have already been completed. As of 1 February 2021, nearly EUR 90 million had been disbursed on EDP projects, a disbursement rate of nearly 40 per cent within two years of the programme’s launch.
 EDP projects completed to date:
- Mali – ‘Water Supply and Sanitation in 18 Municipalities of the Mopti Region’ with EUR 800,000 of funding from the French Development Agency (AFD) (Pillar I: Access to water and sanitation)
- Niger – ‘PASC II: Support Stability and Community Cohesion in North Tillabéry’ with EUR 400,000 from the French Crisis and Support Centre (CDCS) (Pillar III: Strengthen social cohesion)
- Niger – ‘“Common Ground”: Strengthening Mutual Trust and Collaboration between Communities, Local Authorities and Defence and Security Forces in Mali and Niger’ with EUR 200,000 of funding from the French Crisis and Support Centre (CDCS) (Pillar III: Strengthen social cohesion)
- Burkina Faso – ‘ABS II: Sector Budget Support for Water and Sanitation’ with EUR 18 million of funding from KfW Development Bank (Pillar I: Access to water and sanitation)
Pillar I : Access to water and sanitation
Ten EDP projects fall under Pillar I and have already helped improve access to drinking water and sanitation for the people of the Sahel region. In Mauritania, for example, the G5-2H project (EUR 12 million of French funding) finances emergency rehabilitation work on the infrastructure providing access to drinking water in the Hodh Ech Chargui and Hodh El Gharbi regions. Between June and November 2020, thanks to the emergency status of the project implemented by the Mauritanian Ministry of Hydraulics and Sanitation, 14 communities with a population of 10,500 had their drinking water system rehabilitated.
In Burkina Faso, the sector budget support for the water and sanitation sector, which is funded by Germany (EUR 18 million), has contributed to the construction and rehabilitation of water and sanitation facilities throughout the country. The support helped to create 10 simplified drinking water supply systems (SDWSs), 302 boreholes and 6,095 family latrines between 2019 and 2020.
In Niger, some 9,000 people have recently been supplied with drinking water since the 10 drinking water systems (DWSs) were rehabilitated in Tillabéry, thanks to the Regional Emergency Local Infrastructure Development Programme within the framework of PASEHA III (EU, Netherlands and LuxDev) for the North Tillabéry and West Tahoua zones. A project to increase access to drinking water in areas hosting displaced people in Tillabéry and Tahoua, funded by the French Development Agency (AFD), has resulted in the construction of some 21 water infrastructure facilities, including 3 mini-DWSs, 4 boreholes and 14 wells.
Pillar II : Resilience to food and nutritional insecurity
Two EDP projects fall under Pillar II. In Mali, the World Bank’s Konna Economic Recovery and Stabilisation Project (USD 30 million mobilised under the Reconstruction and Economic Recovery Project – PRRE) rehabilitated and rebuilt 60 per cent of the buildings at the port of Konna, which resumed operation in June 2020.
Thanks to the project, the port has also benefited from other economic recovery activities, such as the construction of latrine blocks, shops, offices, sheds, a water tower, etc. Moreover, having been extended to June 2021, the project was able to implement activities of community interest, such as creating and equipping a youth centre in Konna, a digital centre and a sports complex. At the inauguration of these infrastructures, the Malian government praised the Sahel Alliance members’ coordination on the Konna project as a success story.
In Niger, the Strengthening Resilience and Human Development Programme funded by the Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation (EUR 10 million) in the region of Tahoua has resulted, for example, in the creation of 7 cattle feed production units, the donation of cattle and agricultural processing equipment (10 grain mills, 10 groundnut processing kits) benefiting 480 vulnerable women and the development of 29 market garden sites with a total surface area of 15.38 ha.
Pillar III : Strengthening social cohesion
Six of the Sahel Alliance projects fall under Pillar III of the EDP. One example is the Tillabéry Recovery Project (EUR 8 million, funded by the AFD) in Niger which, among other things, has financed the creation of five citizens’ forums, serving as a framework for discussion and collaboration between the civilian population and the Defence and Security Forces (FDS) in resolving and preventing conflicts. The state was involved in the discussions through the administrative, local and legal authorities who responded directly to people’s concerns and questions.
Pillar II/III : An integrated approach for the stabilisation of border areas
Four measures contribute to Pillars II and III as part of an integrated approach to strengthening the populations’ food and nutrition resilience and reducing the number of intercommunity conflicts in the most vulnerable areas. For example, the European Union Emergency Programme for the Stabilisation of G5 Sahel Border Areas funds cash transfers through NGOs in the most vulnerable border communities of the G5 Sahel to enable the populations to meet their food needs. Funds have been transferred to feed 2,585 very poor households in project area 1 (Mali and Mauritania) and 3,136 households in project area 3 (Chad and Niger).
The UNDP Youth and Peace project (USD 3 million) aims to support efforts to consolidate peace and security in Mali and Burkina Faso through a participatory governance approach involving young people in promoting peace and development to prevent and manage local conflict. Thanks to the project, the needs and aspirations of 390 young people, including 150 women, have been integrated in the local decision-making processes and framework.
Difficulties encountered in the implementation of the EDP
Limited access to certain EDP project areas due to insecurity has made it difficult to implement some of the projects financed by the members of the Sahel Alliance. For example, owing to the serious insecurity in certain parts of Burkina Faso, the EU funding (EUR 5 million) initially planned for the construction of a dam at Tin-Akof, was reallocated to two projects to consolidate drinking water supplies in the northern region:
- The project to consolidate the drinking water supply and sanitation systems of the towns of Dori and Djibo in the Sahel (P-CSEPA, EUR 3 million) implemented by the National Office for Water and Sanitation (ONEA), launched in June 2021). The project team has been set up and is in the process of finalising the operational action plan.
- The project to improve access to drinking water and sanitation for internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the Sahel region (PRAEA-PDI, EUR 2 million) implemented by the Burkinabe Red Cross. The project has already achieved the first tangible results in the field, such as the construction of family latrines in Dori, Bani, Gorom and Sebba, 35 emergency latrine-shower facilities at IDP sites in Seytenga, and one water tank (PEA) in Sebba where diagnostic work and pumping tests have also been conducted on three boreholes.
Besides the security-related issues, other difficulties identified in implementing the EDP are slow processes or lengthy administrative and contracting procedures.
On 18 June 2021, the World Bank Board of Directors approved its funding for the Mauritania Youth Employability Project (USD 40 million) – the final outstanding EDP project. The project is scheduled to start on 31 August 2021 and will be implemented by the Mauritanian Ministry of Employment, Youth and Sports. It aims to increase jobs for young people, especially in rural areas.
ANNEX: List of EDP projects
|Burkina Faso||Consolidate the drinking water supply and sanitation systems of the towns of Dori and Djibo in the Sahel (P-CSEPA)||European Union||EUR 3,000,000|
|Burkina Faso||Improve access to drinking water and sanitation for internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the Sahel region (PRAEA-PDI)||European Union||EUR 2,000,000|
|Burkina Faso||ABS II: Sector Budget Support||Germany (KfW)||EUR 18,000,000|
|Mauritania||Access to drinking water and sanitation in the 2 Hodhs regions of Mauritania (G5-2H)||AFD||EUR 12,000,000|
|Mauritania||Decentralisation and Productive Intermediate Cities Support Project||World Bank||USD 66,000,000|
|Mauritania||Water and Sanitation Sectoral Project (WSSP)||World Bank||USD 44,000,000|
|Mauritania||Youth Employment||World Bank||USD 40,000,000|
|Mauritania||Health System||World Bank||USD 23,000,000|
|Mauritania||Social Safety Net System Project II||World Bank, Germany||USD 52,000,000|
|Chad||Resilience through access to water||European Union||EUR 6,000,000|
|Mali||Youth and Stabilisation Programme in the Central Mali Regions (PROJES)||European Union||EUR 5,000,000|
|Mali||Konna Economic Recovery and Stabilisation Project||World Bank||EUR 26,000,000|
|Mali||Mopti Drinking Water||AFD||EUR 800,000|
|Niger||Support Programme for the Water and Sanitation Sector (PASEHA III)||European Union, Netherlands||EUR 10,000,000|
|Niger||Tillabéry Recovery Project||France||EUR 8,000,000|
|Niger||Increase access to drinking water in the areas hosting displaced persons in Tillabéry and Tahoua||France||EUR 4,000,000|
|Niger||PASC II: Support Stability And Community Cohesion in North Tillabéry (PASC II)||France||EUR 400,000|
|Niger||“Common Ground”||France||EUR 200,000|
|Niger||Strengthening Resilience and Human Development Programme||Spain|
|Regional||Youth and Peace||PNUD||EUR 3,000,000|
|Regional||Three Borders||AFD||EUR 55,500,000|
|Regional||Stabilisation of G5 Sahel Border Areas||European Union||EUR 68,000,000|
 In February 2021, EUR 88.9 million was disbursed by EDP projects (disbursement rate of 39.3%). Due to an update of the EDP tracking methodology, an update of the disbursement rate has not been possible since then.
 PDU Projects completed to Date:
- Mali – AFD – Mopti Drinking water
- Niger – France – PASC II.
- Niger – France – Common Ground
- Burkina Faso – KfW – ABS II